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400 Years of Silence:
1 Esdras

Through this project I explore how the Apocrypha books and Afrocentric philosophy unite. I want to find out how biblical history and contemporary events parallel in order to help my audience understand the importance of African and African-Americans in world civilizations. My project’s success is based on my ability to evoke a response from my audience through the visual interpretation of the message I am trying to communicate through a series of paintings and drawings.

I began this project in 1993. I traveled to Atlanta, Georgia to meet with the late Dr. Charles B. Copher, distinguished and eminent scholar of the Old Testament; former Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor of Old Testament at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia. He also held a Ph.D. in Biblical literature from Boston University. At our meeting, Dr. Copher gave me a list of his books and other research information in order to begin my project.


Scholarly information of the Apocrypha Books was obtained from published research done by the late Bruce M. Metzger, former Professor Emeritus of New Testament Language and Literature, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, Princeton, New Jersey. He is a recognized authority on the text of the New Testament.

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